Online Resources on the History of Revival

Many Christians believe the church on the West is in great need of revival. However, there is widespread ignorance and disagreement about the nature of true revival. Christians need to be more aware of their heritage and the great revivals of the past. This post contains a list of online resources about these revivals, including modern articles and scanned copies of old books, many of which are still in print, but you do not have to pay to read them here.

The First Great Awakening (18th Century)


Wikipedia entry for the First Great Awakening

Spiritual Awakenings in North America

The Great Awakening: A History of the Revival of Religion in the time of Edwards and Whitefield by Joseph Tracey

John Wesley

John Wesley

Wikipedia entry for John Wesley

Wesley Center Online

John Wesley at Sermon Index

Works by or on John Wesley available on Internet Archive

George Whitefield

George Whitefield

Wikipedia entry for George Whitefield

The Innovative Awakener: George Whitefield and the Growth of the Evangelical Revival

“I Will Not Be a Velvet-Mouthed Preacher!” The Life and Ministry of George Whitefield: Living and Preaching As Though God Were Real (Because He Is) by John Piper

Sermons of The Reverend George Whitefield

Gospel Coalition articles on George Whitefield

George Whitefield at 300, Credo Magazine, July 2014 (click on view as PDF)

George Whitefield at Sermon Index

Works by or on George Whitefield available at Internet Archive

Jonathan Edwards

Jonathan Edwards

Wikipedia entry for Jonathan Edwards

Jonathan Edwards Center at Yale University

The Writings of Jonathan Edwards

Jonathan Edwards at Sermon Index

Works by or on Jonathan Edwards available at Internet Archive

The Second Great Awakening (19th Century)


Wikipedia entry for the Second Great Awakening

The Return of the Spirit: The Second Great Awakening

Fire From Heaven, A Description and Analysis of the Revivals of the “Burned-Over District” of Upstate New York 1800-1840 and Spiritual Deceptions by Robert Evans

Lectures on Revivals of Religion by William Sprague

Charles Finney

Charles Finney

Wikipedia entry for Charles Finney

Charles Finney – The Controversial Evangelist

Complete Works of Charles G. Finney

Charles Finney at Sermon Index

Asahel Nettleton

Asahel Nettleton

Wikipedia entry for Asahel Nettleton

Asahel Nettleton – The Forgotten Evangelist

Memoir of the Life and Character of the Rev Asahel Nettleton DD by Bennett Tyler

Asahel Nettleton: Sermons from the Second Great Awakening

Asahel Nettleton at Sermon Index

The 1859 Prayer Revival

The Great Awakening of 1857-1858

The Time for Prayer: The Third Great Awakening

The Power of Prayer by Samuel Prime

The Welsh Revival by Thomas Phillips at Internet Archive

150th 1859 Revival Anniversary

The 1859 Ulster Revival

The Year of Grace, A History of the Ulster Revival of 1859 by William Gibson at Internet Archive

The Welsh Revival of 1904-1905

Evan Roberts

Wikipedia entry for the Welsh Revival

Wikipedia entry for Evan Roberts

Moriah Chapel Birthplace of the 1904 Welsh Revival

The Legacy of the Welsh Revival 1904-1905

The Welsh Revival by W. T.  Stead and G. Campbell Morgan

Charles Spurgeon

Charles Spurgeon

Wikipedia entry for Charles Spurgeon

Christian History magazine issue on Spurgeon

The Spurgeon Center

Spurgeon Gems

The Spurgeon Archive

Charles Spurgeon at Sermon Index

Revivals in Australia

The First Revival in Australia

Early Evangelical Revivals in Australia by Robert Evans

Evangelism and Revivals in Australia 1880 to 1914 by Robert Evans

David Martyn Lloyd-Jones

David Martyn Lloyd-Jones

Wikipedia entry for David Martyn Lloyd-Jones

MLJ Trust (includes 1600 sermons)

Duncan Campbell

Duncan Campbell

Wikipedia entry for Duncan Campbell

Works of Duncan Campbell


What really crashed at Roswell 2017 Update

The truth about the UFO crash at Roswell

July 2017 is the 70th anniversary of the supposed UFO crash at Roswell, New Mexico. In July 1947 Roswell Army Air Field reported that Major Jesse Marcel had recovered the remains of a flying saucer discovered by a rancher Bill “Mac” Brazel  in what is now called the Debris Field north of Roswell. A few days later it was announced that it had only been a weather balloon.

At the time of the 60th anniversary in 2007 Ufologist Magazine published my two part article “What Really Crashed at Roswell” which discussed the claims there had been a second crash site with more wreckage and alien bodies. I suggested that the US Air Force explanation, that it was really a Project Mogul balloon, is much more credible. This article can be found here and here. This post follows on from these articles and discusses some of the new developments in the Roswell case in the last ten years.

In their 2007 book Witness to Roswell Thomas Carey and Donald Schmitt now claimed there were three crash sites, the debris field at the Foster Ranch, the Dee Proctor site where Mac Brazel is supposed to have found alien bodies, and they claim to have finally found the third site in 2005 where most of the wreckage and more bodies were found, about fifty miles north of Roswell. This was not the same as the site identified by Frank Kaufmann in The Truth about the UFO Crash at Roswell in 1994 [1]. Everything, which had been previously published about the main crash site, was now apparently wrong.

Timothy ”Dee” Proctor was 7 years old in 1947 and he used to accompany Mac Brazel while he worked. In 1994 Dee took his mother to a location 2 ½ miles east of the Debris Field and told her, “This is where Mac found something else.” He did not elaborate and he was never interviewed by Roswell investigators. He died in 2006[2], but this is supposed to mean that Brazel found alien bodies [3].

As I mentioned here, Frank Joyce also claimed that Brazel said he had seen alien bodies, but Brazel himself as made no such claims.

Earlier books, UFO Crash at Roswell and The Truth about the UFO Crash at Roswell, which Schmitt co-authored, give the impression that the Debris Field was an isolated place and only a few people had seen it. However, in Witness to Roswell Schmitt and Carey several other ranchers had visited the site and picked up debris. Some were even displayed at a rodeo in Capitan about 100 kilometres west of Roswell on July 4[4].

New witnesses, who come forward decades after the event, have little credibility. Schmitt and Carey cite a lot of second-hand accounts from family members who say their relatives saw alien bodies or a crashed spaceship in 1947, but they have died and we cannot verify their stories.

Jesse Marcel never claimed to have seen alien bodies, but Schmitt and Carey ignore Marcel’s own account and write,

“Our investigation has concluded that Major Marcel had to know about the alien bodies that were recovered from the crash – not secondhand by hearing about them from others in the chain of command, but firsthand from seeing them himself.”[5]

Because Dee Proctor’s mother says he told her Mac Brazel “found something else” before he died, Brazel saw alien bodies and he must have shown these bodies to Marcel and Cavitt, even though they never mentioned seeing alien bodies [6].

After Marcel’s death, some of his relatives claimed that Marcel had told them he had seen alien bodies [7]. Jesse Marcel Jr’s 2009 book The Roswell Legacy describes the material which his father brought home from the Foster Ranch and showed them, but he makes it clear his father never saw any alien bodies[8]. Schmitt and Carey suggest there are two possibilities – Marcel told those more distant relatives, but not his son or Marcel did tell his son, but he is not telling the whole story[9]. There is a third possibility, that Marcel never told them and these relatives are making it up.

There is also a problem with Jesse Marcel Jr’s recollections in The Roswell Legacy.  In 1990 he was hypnotized in order to recall the night his father brought the material home[10]. In The Abduction Enigma Kevin Randle argues that memories, which have been “recovered” through hypnosis can be unreliable. He writes,

“It is a poor tool for finding the truth, it allows the subject to confabulate amazing memories and act on those memories as if they were true, and its validity is now being questioned. In fact, in many states, a witness who has been hypnotized in an attempt to learn of an event can no longer be called as a witness. Courts, and science, recognize how easily memories and events can be reconstructed or confabulated by a clever hypnotist. Even those whose memories are a search for the truth can, and do, lead the subject into memories that are not part of reality.”[11]

This means that Jesse Marcel Jr’s recollections of the material he saw could be contaminated and unreliable.

Schmitt and Carey describe the material recovered from the Foster Ranch as “memory metal”. Witnesses said it had unusual properties. It could be crumpled up and then return to its original condition[12]. It sounds like some kind of advanced alien technology. They call this metal the “Holy Grail of Roswell”. Finding some would prove something extraterrestrial had crashed[13].

A 2008 episode of UFO Hunters “The Real Roswell” featured former Staff Sergeant Earl Fulford who described how he had been involved in picking up the debris at the Foster Ranch. He said that after it was crumpled up, it returned to its original shape. In an experiment both Earl Fulford and Jesse Marcel Jr identified the material, which they had handled, as acetate. This undermines both the Project Mogul and the extraterrestrial explanation. There was no acetate in the Project Mogul balloons, but it also shows that what they handled was not necessarily some mysterious metal which was a product of alien technology.

Witness to Roswell published a 2002 affidavit by Walter Haut who died in 2005. Haut had been the Public Information Officer at Roswell Army Air Field and wrote the original press release in July 1947. When he was interviewed for The Roswell Incident in 1979, he said he had not seen any crashed spaceship or alien bodies[14]. In 1989 Kevin Randle and Donald Schmitt interviewed Haut for their book UFO Crash at Roswell. He said he knew, “Nothing.” He had not seen any wreckage or bodies[15].  In his 2002 affidavit Haut told a very different story. He said he had handled some of the debris from the Foster Ranch and had seen part of the spaceship and two alien bodies in a hanger[16].

Haut did not write this affidavit. It was based on statements he made when he was interviewed by two Roswell researchers Wendy Connors and Dennis Balthaser. Kevin Randle commented,

“Anyone listening to the taped interview conducted by Wendy Connors and Dennis Balthaser in 2000 realizes that Haut is lost. He contradicts himself inside of single paragraphs and sometimes single sentences.”[17]

“The Connors/Balthaser interview contained some very disturbing statements by Haut. He was either badly confused, he was deeply conflicted about revealing a secret he had kept for more than sixty years, or he just couldn’t keep his new story straight probably because of his advanced age.  He left a somewhat rambling mishmash of contradictory information in various statements he made after 2000.”[18]

In this interview Haut claimed to have seen several bodies, one body and then claimed not to have seen anything[19].  It sounds like he was getting old and confused and losing his memory. Donald Schmitt and Thomas Carey then wrote the affidavit based on the interview and Haut signed it [20].

Around 2014 a story emerged that two Kodak slides from the 1940s showed an alien body about three feet long in a glass case. In 2015 Tony Bragalia said about the body on the slide,

“This humanoid is not a deformed person, mummy, dummy, simian or dead serviceman. It is not a creature that finds its origin on Earth. And given that the slides of this creature were taken the very same year as the Roswell UFO crash; that the appearance of the creature matches the reported appearance of the Roswell crash aliens; and given that the person who was in original possession of the slides was a geologist working in the New Mexico desert throughout the 1940’s, it is not a jump or stretch to conclude that these slides indeed show the corpse of one of the creatures found fallen at Roswell.” [21] 

However, when the slides became available online and deblurring software made them clearer, the caption on the display case could be read, “Mummified body of a two year old.” [22]  They turned out to be photos of  a mummified Native American boy which had been discovered in 1894 and had been on display in a museum in Mesa Verde National Park, Colorado [23].

In a 2016 book Roswell in the 21st Century Kevin Randle, who had been one of the leading proponents of the Roswell UFO crash, was now more skeptical and critical of the evidence. He agrees that Jesse Marcel appears to have embellished his war record [24] and his memories are “not completely reliable” [25]. He said that Glenn Dennis’ credibility has been destroyed [26] and “we must reject this testimony”[27]. Randle no longer found the witnesses to alien bodies convincing,

“We just have the stories told about the bodies, few of them told by first-hand witnesses. Those who have claimed to be first-hand-witnesses have nothing to prove they were there or that they saw anything extraordinary. They have no diaries, no journals, no letters from that time which would add a note of credibility to what they have claimed.

This is not to mention that many of those who originally claimed t have seen bodies have had their credibility challenged. Some have been caught in forging documents, changing the story to fit the new evidence as it is uncovered and making up their involvement. There are no solid first-hand tales with some form of documentation. All we have is the tales often with no corroborating testimony to go with it, or that all those who might have seen the same thing no longer available for interview.” [28]

When Randle examined the earliest and most reliable evidence, he concluded, “Based solely on this information and documentation, it would appear that the recovery was of a balloon and rawin radar target. The photographs of the debris in Ramey’s office establish that. It is only when testimony, gathered decades after the fact come into play that we move in another direction.” [29]

Randle still did not accept the Project Mogul explanation [30]. Nevertheless, he wrote, “As for me, I find myself drifting toward those who reject the extraterrestrial


Kevin Randle’s change of mind is a major blow for Roswell. He had written several books on Roswell, yet he came to the conclusion that the evidence that the evidence that he had once relied upon and used in his books was unreliable.

Finally, a 2017 episode of History’s Greatest Hoaxes “The Alien Autopsy Film” on Ray Santilli’s video described how it was filmed in a flat in Camden, London. John Humphreys, a special effects artist, says he used chicken and sheep organs for the alien’s insides.

[1] Thomas Carey and Donald Schmitt, Witness to Roswell, New Page Books, New Jersey, 2009, p 138-139

[2] Ibid., p 47, 139, 203-204

[3] Ibid., p 83

[4]  Ibid., p 48-49

[5] Ibid., p 82-83

[6] Ibid., p 83

[7] Ibid., p 84-85

[8] Jesse Marcel Jr and Linda Marcel, The Roswell Legacy, New Page Books, New Jersey, 2005, p 73, 119

[9] Witness to Roswell, op cit., p 73. 119

[10] Thomas Carey and Donald Schmitt, The Children of Roswell, New Page Books, New Jersey, 2016, p 115-120

[11] Kevin Randle, Russ Estes and William Cone, The Abduction Enigma, Forge, New York, 1999, p 338

[12] Witness to Roswell, op cit., p26, 263

[13] Ibid.

[14] The Roswell Incident, op cit., p 76

[15] UFO Crash at Roswell, op cit., p 139-140

[16] Witness to Roswell, op cit., p 251-254

[17] Kevin Randle, Roswell in the 21st Century, Speaking Volumes, Florida, 2016, p  215

[18] Ibid., p 216

[19] Ibid., p 218-219

[20] Ibid., p 215, 218

[21] Ibid., p 177

[22]  Ibid., p 189

[23]  Ibid., p 197-198, 395

[24]  Ibid., p 163

[25]  Ibid., p 164

[26]  Ibid., p 245

[27]  Ibid., p 214

[28]  Ibid., p 104-105

[29]  Ibid., p 236

[30]  Ibid., p 370-371

[31]  Ibid., p 247

Christians and Gays Part Five Conclusion

This is a photo of Andrew Marin, a Christian, hugging a gay man in his underpants at a gay pride parade in 2010, as part of the I’m Sorry Campaign  where Christians held up sign at gay pride parades apologizing for the way the churches have treated homosexuals in the past.

Some Christians might be offended at the suggestion that we should apologize to sinful homosexuals. The fact, that they are sinners (like everyone else) is irrelevant if we need to apologize to them (Matthew 5:25). Christians have judged and condemned them and demanded that they repent often without dealing with the sin in their own lives. Many Christians expect gays to remain celibate  while looking down on single people in the church and treating them as second class Christians.

I have argued here that the underlying cause of homosexuality is idolatry, expecting to find wholeness through homosexuality rather than relationship with Jesus. However, many Christians are just as guilty and find their wholeness and value through their heterosexual marriages and also their careers, success and possessions. This is also idolatry.

I also wrote here that most homosexuals appear to have grown up in the church, yet we have turned on them for their sin while not dealing with our own. Most Christians would not condemn people for their non-homosexual sin the way they condemn homosexuals. I have argued here that their attitude is not so much based on the handful of passages in the Bible which deal with homosexuality. They are cultural and psychological in origin.

I wrote this series of posts hoping to encourage real tolerance on both sides, that is, tolerating those we think are wrong and not hating them and wanting to take their rights away. A few weeks ago the Bible Society in Australia had a similar idea. They released a video showing two members of the Liberal Party, Andrew Hastie, a Christian and opponent of gay marriage, and Tim Wilson, a gay supporter of gay marriage, having a polite civil discussion on gay marriage while drinking Coopers beer.

I would have thought this was true tolerance and diversity in action, showing that people can still be respectful and get along, even if they think the other person is wrong – the assumption that our liberal democracies are based upon.

Instead, this was too much for some supporters of gay marriage. Some hotels in Melbourne and Sydney said they were going to boycott Coopers. A few days later Coopers issued an apology (for being part of a video which supported tolerance, respect and free speech) and proclaimed their support for gay marriage.

When I think about all the misery and suffering, which alcohol has caused Australia, health problems, sexual assaults, domestic violence, addiction, car accidents and vandalism, I find it hard to take hotel owners seriously when they claim to have a social conscience.

While writing this post I learned about the case of Felix Ngole, an African Christian  student doing a Masters in Social Work at the University of Sheffield, who was expelled because he had posted comments opposing gay marriage on Facebook, which only his friends would have seen.

Twenty years ago politically correct postmodernism warned that belief in moral absolutes leads to intolerance because it leads to supressing other points of view. Critics would argue that just because one believes in moral absolutes, one does not necessarily oppress others. One can show true tolerance towards them.

Now, a new generation is more likely to do what postmodernism warned about and seeks to supress those they believe are wrong. they may be right – real homophobia and other forms of discrimination are dangerous and harmful. However, those, who carried out the Nazi persecution of the Jews, the Salem witch trials, the Communist purges and the Inquisition, all believed they were right and they were protecting the community from dangerous and harmful people and ideas.

A previous generation boycotting businesses because they think their owners have harmful anti-social beliefs

I believe that in the future in the name of tolerance and diversity there will be greater restrictions on freedom of speech and freedom of religion. This does not mean that Christians should keep fighting the culture wars. The persecution which some Christians have experienced over gay marriage is still minor compared to what many Christians in the Third World suffer. The early Christians had a different attitude to persecution. They went “rejoicing that they were counted worthy to suffer shame for His shame” (Acts 5:41). This is a striking contrast to the “How dare they persecute us” attitude and victim mentality  which many Western Christians seem to have.

In the New Testament suffering and persecution were considered a good thing. It was a sign of God’s love for His people, an opportunity to depend on God more, to grow and become more Christ-like (Romans 5:1-6, 2 Corinthians 10:7-10, Hebrews 12:5-12, James 1:2-8). This is what is truly important, rather than having a comfortable and successful life or whether or not heterosexuals can keep their monopoly on marriage.

In the Roman Empire it was technically illegal to be a Christian. Christians were considered dangerous and socially irresponsible and disruptive because they would not sacrifice to the local pagan gods  and risked bringing the wrath of the gods down on the community. It is similar to the way today many consider Christians to be harmful to society because of their “intolerance”.

The early Christians did not respond with an ancient version of the culture wars.  They showed grace and forgiveness to the pagan society which despised and persecuted them, so much so that the pagans actually wanted to join this hated minority and eventually they won over the Empire.

I am not suggesting that this is easy. it is unnatural. Part of me still wants to fight the culture wars, but arguing with our political opponents is not going to advance the Kingdom of God. It is not easy to forgive and love our enemies and persecutors. We need to turn to Jesus for the grace and strength to do this, like we need to turn to Jesus  in our struggle with other sins, including sexual temptations. Jesus suffered and died for their sins just as much as he did for ours. He wants to see them saved too so we can all spend eternity together in Heaven. That must be our goal too, rather than putting all our energy into opposing gay marriage.