(This article was first published in Ufologist, Vol. 11, No. 3, September-October 2007)
The Project Mogul Explanation
In 1995 the United States Air Force published The Roswell Report, Fact versus
Fiction in the New Mexico Desert in which they concluded that the object, which crashed near Roswell, was a Project Mogul balloon train, consisting of several balloons and radar targets. Project Mogul or the New York University balloon project was a top secret project to detect Soviet nuclear tests. The balloon train, which crashed near Roswell, was most likely Flight 4 which was launched from Alamogordo on June 4, 1947, but was never recovered. (1)
Believers claim that this report was just part of the continuing conspiracy and cover up over Roswell. Nevertheless, it is clear in the accounts of some of the eyewitnesses, who saw the wreckage, that they are describing some kind of balloon, rather than a spaceship.
An article about William Brazel, who discovered the wreckage, in the Roswell Daily Record on July 8, 1947, the day after they reported a flying saucer had crashed, said,
“Brazel related that on June 14 he and 8-year-old son, Vernon were about 7 or 8 miles from the ranch house of the J. B. Foster ranch, which he operates, when they came upon a large area of bright wreckage made up on (sic) rubber strips, tinfoil, a rather tough paper and sticks.
Brazel said that he did not see it fall from the sky and he did not see it before it was torn up, so he did not know the size or shape it might have been, but he thought it might have been about as large as a table top. The balloon which held it up, if that was how it worked, must have been about 12 feet long, he felt, measuring the distance by the size of the room in which he sat. The rubber was smoky gray in color and scattered over an area about 200 yards in diameter.
When the debris was gathered up the tinfoil, paper, tape and sticks made a bundle about three feet long and 7 or 8 inches thick, while the rubber made a bundle about 18 or 20 inches long and about 8 inches thick. In all, he estimated, the entire lot would have weighed maybe five pounds.
There was no sign of any metal in the area which might have been used for an engine and no sign of any propellers of any kind, although at least one paper fin had been glued onto some of the tinfoil.
There were no words to be found anywhere on the instrument, although there were letters on some of the parts. Considerable scotch tape and some tape with flowers printed on it had been used in the construction.
Brazel said that he had previously found two weather balloons on the ranch, but that what he had found this time did not in any way resemble either of these.
“I am sure what I found was not any weather observation balloon,” he said. “But if I find anything else besides a bomb, they are going to have a hard time getting me to say anything about it.” “ (2)
This article is significant in that not only does this not sound like the remains of a crashed spaceship, but Brazel also said that he found the wreckage on June 14, that is, 10 days before Kenneth Arnold’s famous sighting and the flying saucer craze began. Thus, the object did not crash during a thunder storm on July 2 or 4 and was not discovered by Brazel on July 5.
Brazel’s description is the earliest published description of the wreckage. There was no time for his recollections to be embellished or influenced by the media, so an objective historian would regard it as the most accurate and reliable account.
Since what Brazel was describing could not possibly be an alien spaceship, Roswell believers need to discredit Brazel’s interview. They claim he was lying and had been coerced by the military (3). In UFO Crash at Roswell, Randle and Schmitt describe this as “the beginning of the cover-up that lasted, almost intact, for forty years.” (4) However, on the same page they also quote Brazel saying in the same interview that it was not a weather balloon which he found. This is meant to be proof that it was not a weather balloon which crashed. This means that either the military cover-up did not do a very good job of threatening Brazel and keeping him in line and he managed to slip the “truth” in, or there was no attempt to coerce Brazel at all and he was simply reporting what he saw. He said it was not an ordinary weather balloon because it was a Project Mogul balloon train, and it was not like any weather balloon he had seen before.
Brazel, himself, never claimed to have been threatened by the military. There are only accounts of others who claim that he was (5). Randle and Schmitt write that Brazel was kept in military custody for about eight days form 11 A.M. on July 8, when the military arrived and retrieved the wreckage from the Foster ranch, until July 15 (6). However, they have also claimed that there other witnesses, like the supposed archaeologists, who saw the crashed saucer and alien bodies. They were only threatened, told not to tell anyone, and allowed to leave. It is not plausible that Brazel, who only saw some unusual foil-like metal, would be held prisoner for eight days, while the witnesses, who supposedly saw the more significant crashed alien spaceship and alien bodies, were free to go.
Furthermore, Brazel’s daughter, Bessie Schreiber said in an affidavit, dated September 22, 1993, that her father was at home with Bessie, her brother, Vernon, and their mother, while the military collected the wreckage (7).
It does appear that Brazel was away from home in Roswell on the night of July 8 at least, but he was not in military custody. In 1989 Randle and Schmitt interviewed Walter Haut who had been the Public Information Officer at Roswell and had issued the original press release saying that they had captured a flying saucer. Haut told them that Brazel had not been kept on the base, but had stayed at the home of Walt Whitmore, owner of the KGFL radio station. According to Haut, “Walt Whitmore had practically kidnapped him.” (8) Whitmore was apparently keeping Brazel isolated, especially from other journalists, in the hope of getting an exclusive about the crashed flying saucer (9).
After the interview with the Roswell Daily Record, Brazel went to the radio station KGFL and in an interview with Frank Joyce he told a similar story to the one he had just given to the newspaper. Joyce claims that what Brazel now said was very different from what he supposedly told him three days earlier when he first reported the wreckage, although he will not say what the differences were (10). Joyce claims that Brazel had been accompanied by soldiers and had clearly been intimidated into changing his story (11). When Brazel was about to leave with his military escort, Joyce claims Brazel said to him, “Frank, you know how they talk of little green men? … They weren’t green.” (12) The obvious implication is they were grey. However, this last statement casts doubt on Joyce’s account and suggests that he was making it up since no one has ever claimed there were alien bodies in the wreckage Brazel found on the Foster ranch.
In their 1991 scenario in UFO Crash at Roswell, Randle and Schmitt write that Brazel was in the spotter plane which discovered the main crash site, including the bodies. “Brazel, because he knew the land well, was helping to direct them in toward the second crash site.” (13) This might explain how Brazel could have seen any supposed alien bodies. However, a spotter plane would have simply seen the wreckage and radioed to the soldiers on the ground, telling them in what direction and how far to go. Brazel might have “known the land well”, but they would not have needed him. There is no evidence Brazel was ever in a military spotter plane. As we have seen, his daughter Bessie says he was home at the time. Moreover, Brazel’s neighbors have said there were no planes flying around when the wreckage was recovered (14).
In their 1994 scenario Randle and Schmitt changed the dates and now claimed that the crashed disc and the alien bodies had been retrieved on July 5, before, according to them, Brazel had even found the debris on the Foster ranch (15) His supposed flight on the spotter plane had gone down the memory hole, so there was no way Brazel could have seen the alien bodies, but they still quote Frank Joyce saying that Brazel told him that “they weren’t green” (16).
Friedman and Berliner also write that Brazel told Joyce that “they weren’t green,” (17) although their book claimed that the main crash with the bodies took place on the Plains of San Agustin 150 miles away. If this were true, there is no way Brazel could have known this. Not only is Joyce’s statement about Brazel unreliable, but the Roswell authors do not appear to be thinking about the implications of what they have written.
In 1979 William Moore interviewed William Brazel’s daughter, Bessie Brazel Schreiber, who was 14 when she saw the crash site. What she described does not sound like the wreckage of an alien spaceship. She said,
“There was what appeared to be pieces of heavily waxed paper and a sort of aluminum-like foil. Some of the pieces had something like numbers and lettering on them, but there were no words we were able to make out. Some of the metal-foil pieces had a sort of tape stuck to them, and when these were held to the light they showed what looked like pastel flowers or designs. Even though the stuff looked like tape, it could not be peeled off or removed at all. It was very light in weight, but there sure was a lot of it.”(18)
In a statement dated September 22, 1993, she said,
“The debris looked like pieces of a large balloon which had burst. The pieces were small, the largest I remember measuring about the same as the diameter of a basketball. Most of it was a kind of double-sided material, foil-like on one side and rubber-like on the other. Both sides were grayish silver in color, the foil more silvery than the rubber. Sticks, like kite sticks, were attached to some of the pieces with a whitish tape. The tape was about two or three inches wide and had flower-like designs on it. The ‘flowers’ were faint, a variety of pastel colors, and reminded me of Japanese paintings in which the flowers were not all connected. I do not recall any other types of material or markings, nor do I remember seeing gouges in the ground or any other signs that anything may have hit the ground hard. The foil-rubber material could not be torn like ordinary aluminum foil can be torn.” (19)
Likewise, Lt. Col. Sheridan Cavitt, who accompanied Major Marcel to the crash site, believed it was a balloon. In a statement on May 24, 1994, he said,
“When we got to this location we subsequently located some debris which appeared to resemble bamboo type square sticks one quarter to one half inch square, that were very light, as well as some sort of metallic reflecting material that was also very light. I vaguely recall some sort of black box (like a weather instrument). The area of this debris was very small, about 20 feet square, and the material was spread on the ground, but there was no gouge or crater or other obvious sign of impact. I remember recognizing this material as being consistent with a weather balloon.” (20)
Major Marcel also mentioned that Cavitt found a black box in his 1979 interview with William Moore for The Roswell Incident (21).
Major Marcel accompanied the wreckage on the plane to Fort Worth, where it was taken to General Ramey’s office. According to Randle and Schmitt, the debris was switched with weather balloon wreckage and Marcel was then photographed with the substituted wreckage (22)
However, when William Moore and Stanton Friedman interviewed Jesse Marcel in 1979, he said he had been photographed with some of the actual wreckage he had found. The substitution took place after he had been photographed, not before as Randle and Schmitt claim;
“General Ramey allowed some members of the press in to take a picture of this stuff. They took one picture of me on the floor holding up some of the less-interesting metallic debris. The press was allowed to photograph this, but were not allowed far enough into the room to touch it. The stuff in that one photo was pieces of the actual stuff we had found. It was not a staged photo. Later, they cleared out our wreckage and substituted some of our their own. Then they allowed more photos.” (23)
This photo of Marcel holding some of the wreckage is reproduced in The Roswell Incident and the caption states that Marcel says this is some of the wreckage he found.
The photo also appears in Randle and Schmitt’s UFO Crash at Roswell, but their caption says that Marcel is holding some of the substituted balloon wreckage.
The photo in UFO Crash at Roswell has not been cropped and more of the wreckage with Marcel can be seen. It clearly consists of foil and sticks and is identical to the material in the other photographs taken in General Ramey’s office. This means the material, which Marcel found, was really balloon wreckage.
In The Truth about the UFO Crash at Roswell, Randle and Schmitt write that after the wreckage was supposedly substituted, Warrant Officer Irving Newton came in and identified the debris as a weather balloon for the media;
“Inside Ramey’s office, Newton saw the balloon lying on the floor. According to Newton, there was no question about what he was seeing. It was a rawin target balloon.
Five or six reporters were in the room, according to Newton. They were standing back, out of the way, listening to what was happening in front of them. Ramey, a couple of colonels, and the major who was supposed to have been the one who had flown up from Roswell was also there.
According to Newton, the reporters didn’t ask questions, and Marcel had said that he was not allowed to speak with the reporters. But according to Newton, “The major kept pointing to portions of the balloon to ask if I thought that would be found on a regular balloon.” Newton said he had the impression the major was trying to save face and not appear to be a fool who couldn’t tell the difference between a normal balloon and something from outer space.” (24)
In an affidavit, dated July 21, 1994, Newton again identified the material in General Ramey’s office as a balloon,
“The Col[onel] and I walked into the Generals office where this supposed flying saucer was lying all over the floor. As soon as I saw it, I giggled and asked if that was the flying saucer, I was told it was.
Several people were in the room when I went in, among them General Ramey, a couple of press people, a Major, I learned to be Major Marcel, and some other folks. Someone introduced Major Marcel as the person who found this material.
I told them this was a balloon and a RAWIN target. I believed this because I had seen many of these before. They were normally launched by a special crew and followed by a radar unit. They produced a higher altitude winds aloft. We did not use them at Fort Worth. However, I was familiar with them because we used them and their products on various projects in which I was involved. These were used mostly on special projects and overseas. The balloon was made of a rubber type expandable material and when launched was about six to eight feet across. When the balloons got to altitude they expanded to twenty feet or more. The target was used for radar reflections and I believe each leg of the target was approximately 48 inches. It resembled a child’s Jack (like a child’s ball and jack set) with a metallic material between the legs. The legs were made of material appearing to be like balsa wood kite sticks but much tougher.
While I was examining the debris, Major Marcel was picking up pieces of the target sticks and trying to convince me that some notations on the sticks were alien writings. There were figures on the sticks lavender or pink in color, appeared to be weather faded markings with no rhyme or reason. He did not convince me these were alien writings.
I was convinced at the time that this was a weather balloon with a RAWIN target, and remain convinced.” (25)
There is a problem here for Roswell believers. They agree that the wreckage, which Newton identified in Ramey’s office, was balloon wreckage. They claim it had been swapped with the “real” wreckage. However, if the wreckage had been switched, Marcel would not be “trying to save face” and convince Newton that this was wreckage from a flying saucer. He would be telling him this was not the real wreckage. Instead, he was maintaining that this was he found and he thought it was from a flying saucer. In other words, Marcel thought the balloon wreckage was flying saucer wreckage.
In fact, there does not appear to have been any substitution. The wreckage is the same in all the photos. Charles Moore, project engineer for Project Mogul, has identified the wreckage as belonging to a Project Mogul balloon,
“On review of the photos in the Randle/Schmitt book, the material looks like one of our balloon and target assemblies. The wooden beams were made of a balsa wood that had been coated in an Elmers-like glue.” (26)
What Major Marcel thought was alien writing was actually a pattern on the tape used to hold it together. In his 1947 interview, which was quoted earlier, Mac Brazel described it as “tape with flowers printed on it”. Charles Moore said a statement dated June 8, 1994,
“I have a specific recollection of reinforcing tape applied to the seams of the reflectors that had some symbols such as arcs, flowers, circles and diamonds.” (27)
Albert Trakowski, director of Project Mogul from 1946 to 1949, says that the “alien writing” tape came from a New York toy company;
“Some of the reflectors were procured from sources out of normal channels. Some of the contractors lined up were not quite in concert with typical Signal Corps practices and procedures. Jack Peterson was very energetic and could make procurement actions take place. Ed Itsvan, who I believe actually arranged for production for some of the reflectors actually went to a toy manufacturer in New York to get some. It was a kind of standing joke. I remember that some of the prototype and production targets had this pink or purplish tape holding the material to the balsa beam. This tape had flowers and other designs on it.” (28)
Interestingly, The Roswell Incident, published in 1980, includes an illustration of a Project Mogul (NYU Balloon Project) balloon train. When William Moore interviewed Charles Moore, he did not believe the Roswell debris could have been one of his balloons;
“When asked whether the Roswell device might have been a weather or other scientific balloon, Moore replied: “Based on the description you just gave me, I can definitely rule this out. There wasn’t a balloon in use back n ’47, or even today for that matter, that could have produced debris over such a large area or torn up the ground in any way. I have no idea what such an object might have been, but I can’t believe a balloon would fit such a description.”” (29)
Charles Moore’s belief that it could not have been one of his balloons was based on the description, which William Moore had just given him, that the debris had been spread over a large area and had produced a gouge. A balloon crash would not cause a gouge. However, Mac Brazel’s July 9, 1947 description, quoted earlier, said nothing about a gouge and said that the debris were spread over a smaller area. The gouge and larger debris field were later embellishments by others.
In a 1993 interview with Karl Pflock, after he had been shown Brazel’s 1947 interview, and had a more accurate idea of what the debris looked like, Charles Moore agreed that it did sound like a Project Mogul balloon;
“He told me that what Brazel described very closely matched various types of equipment flown by the NYU project and in condition, quantity, and distribution was might be expected to be found where one of the project’s flight had touched down and been dragged along by the wind.” (30)
A year earlier, when Charles Moore told Stanton Friedman and Don Berliner that the debris probably belonged to a Project Mogul balloon, he was accused of being part of the Roswell cover up (31).
In fact, it is true to say there was a cover up at Roswell, but they were not covering up a crashed alien spaceship. They were trying to cover up the publicity which had inadvertently been given to the top secret Project Mogul.
A similar problem developed in the 1950s and 1960s, when, according to Gerald Haines in an article, “CIA’s Role in the Study of UFOs, 1947-90”, over half of all UFO reports were actually sightings of the U2 spy plane. The Project Blue Book officers, investigating UFO sightings, knew this, so when they tried to discredit UFO sightings and came up with sometimes lame explanations, they were not trying to cover up the truth that Earth was being visited by aliens. They were trying to cover up sightings of a top secret CIA project (32).
Other Air Force Projects and Roswell Hoaxes
In 1997 the U.S. Air Force released a second report, The Roswell Report –
Case Closed, which was largely concerned with explaining the reports of alien bodies. They concluded that the bodies had been test dummies which the Air Force had used in high altitude balloon experiments and that the accounts of the military retrieving crashed spaceships and alien bodies were distorted and embellished recollections of the military retrieving these crashed balloons and test dummies.
Perhaps some of the second hand accounts of the Roswell crash can be explained by crashed high altitude balloons or other experimental projects. Somebody saw some strange wreckage or aircraft in the desert, the military came along and picked it up, they told other people about it, and years later, when these other people heard about the supposed UFO crash at Roswell, they assumed that was what the original witness had seen. For example, The Roswell Report – Case Closed includes photos of the Viking and Voyager-Mars space probes which were test-flown suspended from high altitude balloons near Roswell (1). These probes look like flying saucers and it is understandable that if someone came across one of them in the desert after it had landed, they would think they had seen a crashed UFO. Misinterpreted Air Force and NASA tests would also explain why there are so many reports of crashed UFOs in the south west United States.
However, confusing crash test dummies with aliens does sound far fetched. It appears the Air Force were giving the witnesses the benefit of the doubt and trying to come up with an innocent explanation for what they claimed to have seen, and made themselves sound ridiculous in the process. A more plausible explanation, given what has been discussed above, is not that the witnesses were somehow mistaken. They were simply lying.
After all, there have been other lies and hoaxes associated with the Roswell crash. In 1995 there was the alien autopsy video purporting to be the footage of the autopsy of an alien from Roswell. Ray Santilli, a British producer claimed to have purchased the footage from the original cameraman. He sold the rights to the film for $125,000 (US). Then on April 4, 2006, in a Sky One television program Eamon Investigates: Alien Autopsy, Santilli admitted he had faked the footage.
Also in 1995, it was revealed that Donald Schmitt, co-author of UFO Crash at Roswell and The Truth about the UFO Crash at Roswell,had lied about his academic qualifications and had claimed to have worked as a medical illustrator when he was, in fact, a postal worker. Schmitt subsequently resigned from his position as Director of Special Investigations at CUFOS (Center for UFO Studies). His co-author, Kevin Randle, distanced himself from Schmitt, describing him as “a pathological liar”, and saying that he had lied about research he claimed to have carried out. Robert Todd, editor of The Cowflop Quarterly newsletter commented, “Randle now has a convenient scapegoat on whom he can pin every false claim, fact, characterization or mistruth that appears …. in their two books.” (2)
In 1995 Robert Todd published another article, “Major Jesse Marcel: Folk Hero or Mythomaniac?’ showing that Marcel’s military record proved that he had embellished his career and his achievements when he had been interviewed by various Roswell researchers. Marcel claimed to have accumulated 3000 hours as a civilian pilot yet his record does not mention any experience as a pilot. He also claimed to have flown on combat missions during World War II as a pilot, a bombardier and a waist gunner. His record does not mention any training for any of these roles. He apparently “only” flew on combat missions to assess bomb damage or identify possible targets. Marcel also claimed to have been the survivor of a plane which was shot down and to have shot down five enemy planes, which would have made him an ace, but there is no record of this. Robert Todd suggests, “There may be a grain of truth to his claims of manning a waist gun, to the extent that he was allowed to squeeze off a few rounds to see what it was like.” Marcel said he received five medals when he only received two medals for the number of hours he had flown on combat missions.
Marcel claimed to have a degree in physics from George Washington University and to have attended the University of Wisconsin, Ohio State University, New York University and Louisiana State University, but it appears he only attended Louisiana Sate University for 1½ years. He clearly was not involved in New York University’s balloon project. Marcel also claimed that in 1949 he had written the report which President Truman had read on the air announcing the first Soviet atomic explosion, but Truman never made such an announcement. Todd concludes,
“Given Major Marcel’s documented inclination towards Walter Mitty-like fantasies, and his propensity for making wildly exaggerated claims, coupled with his embarrassment over having made a stupid mistake back in 1947, any statements he made in connection with the Roswell incident are virtually worthless, except to the faithful who will continue to cling to Marcel as a knight in shining armour. In his Showtime movie, Roswell, Paul Davids did his level best to turn Major Marcel into a folk hero who blazed the trial to the “truth” about the Roswell incident. But the truth is that Major Marcel was a mythomomaniac who was responsible for the brouhaha back in 1947, and without whom the Roswell story would never have lived again in the 1980s and ’90s. Clearly Marcel had a problem with the truth.” (3)
In September 1996, Penthouse magazine published photos (naked, of course) of a supposed dead alien from the Roswell crash. The article claimed,
“The pictures belonged to the daughter of a German scientist who escaped to America at the outset of World War II. In this country the scientist worked with Einstein and Oppenheimer and was also involved in top-secret government research endeavours, including the infamous Philadelphia Experiment and the investigation of the crash of a mysterious spacecraft in Roswell, New Mexico, in the late 1940s.”
Penthouse‘s editor, Bob Guccione, is reported to have paid $200,000 (US) for the photos. It turns out they were photos of a model alien from the 1994 movie Roswell, starring Kyle MacLachlan, which was on display in the International UFO Museum in Roswell. According to Fortean Times, “Snaps of it turn up regularly with bogus claims of crashed aliens and secret military autopsies.” I suppose the moral is, don’t read Penthouse for the articles. (4)
Likewise, a piece of metal, which was also displayed at the International UFO Museum at Roswell, purporting to be from the crashed spaceship, turned out to be a piece of jeweler’s scrap. (5)
Another Roswell hoax was the 1997 book The Day after Roswell, published by retired Colonel Philip Corso (6). The book is clearly fiction since it begins by describing how Jesse Marcel was present when the alien bodies were supposedly found, something which Marcel never said (7). Corso made the absurd claim that many of the technological innovations of the last 50 years had been back-engineered from the Roswell spaceship, including transistors (8). Since transistor technology is already obsolete on Earth, no alien spaceship, capable of traveling faster then light, would have used anything like transistors.
Corso even claimed to have helped save the world from alien invasion. He said the SDI (Star Wars) program was derived from alien technology and intended to defend the Earth form aliens. Moreover, it actually succeeded in deterring them (9). On the other hand, all the aliens, who are supposedly abducting people, do not appear to be bothered by the SDI.
Many people want to believe an alien spaceship crashed at Roswell. They accuse the American government of a cover up and call for an inquiry, but when the inquiries do not say what they want to hear, they accuse them of still covering up the truth. As we have seen, Roswell believers are in no position to accuse the Air Force of dishonesty. The truth is that the Roswell incident is a mess of contradictory versions and dubious claims. An open-minded examination of the evidence shows that no alien spaceship crashed there.
The Project Mogul Explanation
(1) Richard Weaver and James McAndrew, The Roswell Report, Fact versus. Fiction in the New Mexico Desert , Headquarters United States Air Force, 1995, p 9-31
(2) “The Roswell Daily Record Interview with W.W. “Mac” Brazel”, http://www.roswellfiles.com/Witnesses/brazel.htm
(3) Crash at Corona, op cit., p 79-82
(4) UFO Crash at Roswell, op cit., p 188
(5) The Truth about the UFO Crash at Roswell, op cit., p 89
(6) UFO Crash at Roswell, op cit., p 205-216
(7) Roswell, Inconvenient Facts and the Will to Believe, op cit., p 278
(8) UFO Crash at Roswell, op cit., p 142-3
(9) Roswell, Inconvenient Facts and the Will to Believe, op cit., p 170
(10) UFO Crash at Roswell, op cit., p 39, 42
(11) Ibid., p 42
(12) Ibid., p 75
(13) Ibid., p 206
(14) Roswell, Inconvenient Facts and the Will to Believe, op cit., p 103
(15) The Truth about the UFO Crash at Roswell, op cit., p 197
(16) Ibid., p 70
(17) Crash at Corona, op cit., p 77
(18) The Roswell Incident, op cit., p 90
(19) The Roswell Report, Fact versus Fiction in the New Mexico Desert, op cit., p 23
(20) Ibid, Attachment 17
(21) The Roswell Incident, op cit., p 67
(22) UFO Crash at Roswell, op cit., p 136, The Truth about the UFO Crash at
Roswell, op cit., p 73, 208-209
(23) The Roswell Incident, op cit., p 70
(24) The Truth about the UFO Crash at Roswell, op cit., p 50
(25) The Roswell Report, Fact versus Fiction in the New Mexico Desert, op cit., Attachment 30
(26) Ibid., Attachment 21
(28) Ibid., Attachment 25
(29) The Roswell Incident, op cit., p 43
(30) Roswell, Inconvenient Facts and the Will to Believe, op cit., p 145
(31) James McAndrew, The Roswell Report – Case Closed, Headquarters United States Air Force, 1997,p 9
(32) Gerald Haines, “CIA’s Role in the Study of UFOs, 1947-90”, http://www.roswellfiles.com/Articles/CIAReport.htm
Other Air Force Projects and Roswell Hoaxes
(1) The Roswell Report – Case Closed, op cit., p 4-45
(2) “The Storytellers: Kevin Randle and Donald Schmitt”, http://www.roswellfiles.com/storytellers/RandleSchmitt.htm
(3) Robert Todd, “Major Jesse Marcel: Folk Hero or Mythomaniac?”, The
KowPflop Quarterly, Vol. 1, No. 3, December 1995, http://www.roswellfiles.com/pdf/KowPflop120895.pdf.
(4) Bob Rickard, “Penthouse Alien”, Fortean Times, December 1996, http://www.forteantimes.com/articles/093_penth.shtml
(5) Roswell, Inconvenient Facts and the Will to Believe, op cit., p 200
(6) Ibid., p 203-208, The Roswell UFO Crash, op cit., p 291-307
(7) Philip Corso, The Day After Roswell, Pocket Books, New York, 2000, p 18-20
(8) Ibid., p 173-189
(9) Ibid., p 292-3