The Case Against Ancient Aliens Part Five Ancient Egypt

(In 2017-2018 Ufologist Magazine in Australia published four articles of mine in a series “The Case Against Ancient Aliens”.  The can be found online here. Unfortunately, Ufologist closed down before all my articles could be published, so I will be posting the rest of them on my blog beginning with this one.)

Television documentaries on controversial subjects usually attempt to present both sides, interview experts with different opinions and let the audience draw their own conclusions. In an earlier History Channel series UFO Hunters (2008-2009) one of the presenters often offered a more sceptical non-extra-terrestrial interpretation of the evidence. There is no such objectivity in Ancient Aliens. Apart from a couple of exceptions in the early episodes, there are no interviews with conventional historians or archaeologists who explain how humans could have done these things themselves without the help of aliens.

Ancient aliens believers rely heavily on the logical fallacy, argumentum ad ignorantium, argument from ignorance or appeal to ignorance. Ancient aliens believers claim we do not know how the ancients built something, so aliens must have done it. Actually, a lot of the time archaeologists and historians do have a good idea how they did it, but the ancient aliens believers will not tell you this.

Von Daniken claims that Egyptologists believe ancient Egypt “appears suddenly and without transition with a fantastic ready-made civilisation.”[1] This might sound like aliens had to be involved. Actually, Egyptologists believe Egyptian civilization developed gradually over thousands of years.

Von Daniken writes, “The ancient Egyptians regarded Enoch as the builder of the pyramids.”[2] This would be news to any Egyptologist. Von Daniken’ claim comes from an Arab historian Taki al-Makrizi (1354-1442 AD) who wrote that Enoch, who was also known as Hermes, built the pyramids before the Flood [3].

However, the ancient Egyptians did not know anything about Enoch. They told the Greek historian Herodotus (490-420 BC) that the Pharaoh Cheops built the Great Pyramid in 20 years using 100,000 labourers [4]. They did not say he needed any help from the gods or aliens. The Egyptians did it on their own.

Herodotus may not be completely accurate, but he is definitely more reliable than Taki al-Makrizi who was writing about 1800 years  when they could no longer read hieroglyphics and was repeating later legends with little or no historical value.

Ancient aliens proponents base their argument on the later less reliable source, rather than the earlier more reliable one.

If the ancient Egyptians had built the Great Pyramid from scratch without any precedents, that would be implausible  and would be an argument for alien intervention, but this is not the case.

Early Egyptian mastaba

During the First Dynasty (2920-2770 BC) brick platforms or benches called mastabas were placed over royal tombs. The Third Dynasty Pharaoh Djoser (2630-2611 BC) built the Step Pyramid which was basically six mastabas of decreasing size placed on top of each other with the tomb underneath.

Step Pyramid of Djoser

Sneferu (2575-2551 BC) started to build a seven level step pyramid which he tried to convert into a real pyramid, but it appears to have been abandoned and later collapsed.

Sneferu’s first pyramid attempt

Sneferu began to build a second pyramid, but he did not build it on a firm foundation and it began to sink. Djoser’s Step Pyramid and Sneferu’s first two pyramids had been built with the blocks sloping inward, rather than placed horizontally. This appears to have put too much pressure on the centre of the pyramids and their inner chambers. Sneferu completed his second attempted pyramid by placing the stones horizontally and making the slope less steep, so it came to be called the Bent Pyramid. When he built his third pyramid, the first true pyramid, known as the Red or North Pyramid, the blocks were placed horizontally, making it more stable [5].

Sneferu’s Bent Pyramid

Workers in the Red Pyramid left graffiti behind while they were building. From these, it can be calculated that the pyramid was built in ten years and seven months [6].

The Red Pyramid

The ancient aliens movement tends to ignore Sneferu and focus on his son Khufu’s Great Pyramid, even though Sneferu built three pyramids during his reign and used more stone than in the Great Pyramid [7]. Sneferu clearly did not have aliens helping him. His pyramid building was a case of trial and error, learning from his mistakes until he got it right in the Red Pyramid. His son Khufu (2551-2528 BC) drew on his experience when he built the Great Pyramid.

However, von Daniken claims it was impossible for the Egyptians to have built the great Pyramid without the help of aliens.

“2,600,000 gigantic blocks were cut out of the quarries dressed and transported, and fitted together on the building site to the nearest thousandth of an inch.”[8] “Several hundred thousand workers pushed and pulled blocks weighing 12 tons up a ramp with (non-existent) ropes on (non-existent) rollers. This host of workers lived on (non-existent) grain. They slept in (non-existent) huts which the Pharaoh had built outside his summer palace.” [9]

The evidence says otherwise. As mentioned earlier, the Greek historian Herodotus wrote that it took 100,000 men 10 years to build the ramp to drag the blocks up to the pyramid and another 20 years to build the pyramid itself.

Von Daniken doubts “hundreds of thousands of slaves” could “have lived on the scanty yields of agriculture in the Nile delta.”[10] The Nile was one of the most fertile areas in the ancient world. During the Old Kingdom when the Great Pyramid was built, it supported a population of between 1 and 1.5 million [11].

In spite of what we see in the movies, Egyptologists believe the Great Pyramid was built by conscripts, not slaves. There were probably not “hundreds of thousands” of them as von Daniken claims. They probably did not even need 100,000 as Herodotus claimed. In How the Great Pyramid was Built Craig Smith calculated that 20,000 workers could have built it in 20 years, 10,000 to build it and another 10,000 to support them [12] .

In 1991 archaeologists began excavating the town of the pyramid builders and their tombs near Giza, which von Daniken said did not exist. The site included bakeries and granaries [13].

Archaeologists have also discovered copper tools and their moulds in the workers’ village [14]. Chisel marks can be seen on the stones of the Great Pyramid and in the nearby quarry on the Giza Plateau where about 95% of the stone was quarried [15]. When they were finished, rubble and rubbish were dumped back into the quarry, including stone pounders, ropes and dried mud which as used to lubricate the stones so they moved more easily [16]. No alien tools or parts have been found.

The average stone weighed 2.5 tons, not 12 tons as von Daniken claimed. Some of the stones at the base weigh about 15 tons. The granite stones above the King’s Chamber have been estimated to weigh between 50 and 80 tons [17].

A painting on the wall of a Twelfth Dynasty nobleman Djehutihotep at el-Bersheh shows 172 men pulling a statue which is estimated to weigh about 60 tons. They are using ropes which von Daniken says they did not have and the statue is on a sled, not rollers as von Daniken claimed, but it is still made from the wood which von Daniken says they did not have. Someone is pouring liquid in front of the sled to presumably reduce friction. The Egyptians did not need aliens to help them move 60 tons.

Wall painting from the tomb of Djehutihotep

Some of this “non-existent” rope was found in the boat pit next to the great Pyramid. The ancient Egyptians actually exported rope to other nations [18]. It is true there was not a lot of wood growing in Egypt, so they had to import it from Syria, Lebanon and Sudan [19]. The remains of construction ramps have been found at other pyramids [20].

In 2013 archaeologists discovered the papyrus diary of an Egyptian official Merer which was written in the 26th year of Khufu’s reign. He recorded the transport of limestone blocks by boat from a quarry to Giza [21] .

The Ancient Aliens series has put forward several contradictory theories about the “real” purpose of the Great Pyramid. The episode “Secrets of the Pyramids” suggested the Great Pyramid “acted as a time machine” and was “a gateway or a portal into multiple dimensions that would enable the transmission of people, objects or consciousness from other dimensions into our dimension” [22].

In the episode “Alien Power Plants” Christopher Dunn says the Great Pyramid was used to generate hydrogen and microwaves. Dunn shows how to make hydrogen in a laboratory which only shows one does not need a 146 metre high pyramid to make hydrogen [23].

In the episode “Aliens and Temples of Gold” they say, “It is possible that the Giza Pyramid was actually used to transmute other elements into gold.” [24]

Hydrogen, gold, which was it?

In another episode “Destination Orion” they say it was a star gate to travel back and forth to Orion [25].

In his 1980 book The Stairway to Heaven  Zecharia Sitchin says the Great Pyramid contained “guidance and communications equipment” and was used as a beacon for spaceships to land in the Sinai [26].

We do not need to build 146 metre high pyramids for our space shuttles to land in the right place. Surely surrounding communication equipment with millions of tons of rock would interfere with the signal. A radio tower would be more effective.

In his 1985 book The Wars of Gods and Men Sitchin said the Great Pyramid as later used to imprison the alien Marduk [27].

Then there is Joseph Farrell, author of The Giza Death Star, The Giza Death Star Deployed and The Giza Death Star Destroyed, which I have not read, but I get the idea.

The Ancient Aliens episode “Secrets of the Pyramids” draws attention to pyramids elsewhere in the world, including Sudan, India, Iraq, Mexico, China, Mauritius, Peru, Bolivia, Indonesia and Cambodia and suggest that the “similar building style” means ancient peoples “learned how to build these pyramids from the same teachers.”[28] They ask, “Is it possible the thousands of pyramids scattered across the globe were once part of a cohesive network?”[29]

No. If pyramids around the world were part of a cohesive network, one would expect them to be of the same design and to have been built around the same time. The Great Pyramid was built around 2550 BC. Many ancient aliens proponents and alternative historians claim it was built thousands of years earlier. The Mayans began to build their pyramids during their Terminal Preclassic Period (100-250 AD), over 2500 years after the Great Pyramid. They cannot be part of the same global network.

Mayan pyramid at Tikal

Furthermore, the Egyptian and Mayan pyramids were really not that similar. The Mayan pyramids have steps going up to their flat tops where there was a temple. It does not look like they had a common origin or the same teachers, any more than buildings around the world with doorways and pillars would suggest a common origin.

The Ancient Aliens episode “The Evidence” and “Alien Power Plants” suggest the Great Pyramid was part of a global energy network which used obelisks to transmit energy through the atmosphere [30]. They say, “And some believe the Great Pyramid in conjunction with the obelisks made up what may have been a global wireless energy network.” [31].The Egyptian obelisks, which are shown on Ancient Aliens, were erected in the 18th and 19th Dynasties, about 1000 years after the Great Pyramid. They could not have been part of the same network.

In the episode “The Evidence” David Hatcher Childress also suggests that the obelisks would have needed a water turbine to generate the electricity. They show a computer-generated image of an obelisk by the Nile connected to a turbine and beaming energy into the atmosphere [32]. Obelisks were usually placed in pairs in front of temples, not by the Nile. No evidence of any ancient turbines have been found. If the obelisks needed turbines to transmit electricity and there is no evidence of any turbines, there is no evidence the obelisks transmitted electricity. The inscriptions on the obelisks usually tell of the achievements of the Pharaoh, but they do not say anything like, “Beware! High Voltage!”

Archaeologists have found tools made of wood, stone and copper, but no power tools or machines, which ran on electricity, or spare parts. There are no depictions of such things on the wall of Egyptian tombs of machines which used electricity. They support the archaeological evidence which portrays Egyptian life as more primitive.

The Ancient Aliens episode “Alien Power Plants” claims there is a depiction of a person holding a large light bulb on the walls of the Temple of Hathor in the Dendera complex. They suggest it was powered by the electricity produced by the Great Pyramid [33] . The Temple of Hathor was built over 2000 years after the Great Pyramid during the Greco-Roman period. The so-called Dendera bulb is too big to be a hand held light bulb. It looks over two metres long and would probably blind the person holding it. There is a serpent inside the “bulb”. The actually appears to represent an Egyptian creation myth in which the lotus plant is the first thing to emerge from the primordial sea and out of the lotus came the god Atum who was represented as a snake[34].

The episode “Alien Power Plants” also mentions the Baghdad Batteries. These are three clay jars containing an iron rod inside a copper cylinder. Some believe they are primitive batteries although most archaeologists doubt it. Even if they are batteries, aliens would not make batteries out of clay jars. Furthermore, they are dated to the Parthian period (250 BC – 224 AD), so they could not have anything to do with the Great Pyramid’s supposed energy network 2500 years earlier. Like the Antikythera Device, the Baghdad Batteries may prove that people in the ancient world were more intelligent than we usually credit them, but they are not evidence for ancient aliens.

In another episode “Secrets of the Tombs” they show us the Serapeum of Saqqara near Memphis in which the sacred bulls were buried. The section known as the Greater Vault was used from the beginning of the 26th Dynasty (664 BC) until the Roman period. It contains 24 stone sarcophagi which weighed up to 70 tons. When the sacred bull died, it was entombed, the chamber was walled up, a stela recorded the date and a new bull was found. However, Ancient Aliens asks,

“Are these really some kind of interdimensional stargates and the extraterrestrials are able to come and go from this planet using them?”

“Were the Serapeum sarcophagi actually a teleportation system, as some ancient astronaut theorists believe? Could they be a series of chambers used to convey ancient humans and perhaps alien visitors to other planets?” [35]

Ancient alien star gate?

These are just stone sarcophagi. There is no trace of any alien technology to operate the supposed stargates. There are no hieroglyphics saying, “This way to the stargate.” They do not tell us how anyone could have got out of the sarcophagi stargates since they were walled up. This speculation only proves that the producers of Ancient Aliens have watched Stargate SG-1.  Ancient aliens believers cannot blame conventional archaeologists and historians for ignoring them when they say things like this.

 

[1]  Erich von Daniken, Chariots of the Gods?, Corgi, London, 1971, p 96

[2] Erich von Daniken, Return of the Gods, Element Books, Dorset, 1998, p 184

[3] Ibid., p 59

[4] Herodotus, The Histories, 2:124-125

[5] Mark Lehner, The Complete Pyramids, Thames and Hudson, London, 1997, p 102-103

[6] John Romer, The Great Pyramid, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2007, p 71

[7] The Complete Pyramids, op cit., p 97

[8] Chariots of the Gods?. op cit., p 100

[9] Ibid., p 101

[10] Chariots of the Gods?. op cit., p 97

[11] Gae Callender, Egypt in the Old Kingdom: An Introduction, Longmans, South Australia, 1998, p 115

[12]  Craig Smith, How the Great Pyramid was Built, Smithsonian Books, Washington DC, 2004, p 206

[13] Zahi Hawass, Mountains of the Pharaohs, Doubleday, New York, 2006, p 158-166

[14] How the Great Pyramid Was Built, op cit., p 134-135

[15] The Great Pyramid, op cit., p 100-101, 106-111,202-204

[16] Ibid., p 205-206

[17] The Complete Pyramids, op cit., p 108-109

[18]  How the Great Pyramid Was Built, op cit., p 133

[19] How the Great Pyramid Was Built, op cit., p 49-50, 82

[20] The Complete Pyramids, op cit., p 217

[21]  Tallet, P., and Marouand, G., The Harbor of Khufu on the Red Sea Coast at Wadi al-Jarf, Egypt, Near Eastern Archaeology 77 (1): 4-14, 2014

[22] “Secrets of the Pyramids”, Ancient Aliens, History Channel, 2012, 41 min

[23]  “Alien Power Plants”, Ancient Aliens, History Channel, 2013, 19-20 min

[24]  “Aliens and the Temple of Gold”, Ancient Aliens, History Channel, 2011, 19 min

[25] “Destination Orion”, Ancient Aliens, History Channel, 2013, 10-12 min

[26]  Zecharia Sitchin, The Stairway to Heaven, Harper, New York, 2007, p 384

[27]  Zecharia Sitchin, The Wars of Gods and Men, Harper New York, 2007, p 202-228

[28] “Secrets of the Pyramids”, op cit., 4 mins

[29]  Ibid., 16-17 mins

[30]  “The Evidence”, Ancient Aliens, History Channel, 2010, 77-82 min, “Alien Power Plants”, op cit., 13-29 min

[31] “Alien Power Plants”, op cit., 28 min

[32]  “The Evidence”, op cit., 80-81 min

[33] “Alien Power Plants”, op cit., 21 min

[34] Nick Redfern, Weapons of the Gods, New Page Books, New Jersey, 2016, p 141-142

[35]  “Secrets of the Tombs”, Ancient Aliens, History Channel, 2013, 13 min

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What really crashed at Roswell 2017 Update

The truth about the UFO crash at Roswell

July 2017 is the 70th anniversary of the supposed UFO crash at Roswell, New Mexico. In July 1947 Roswell Army Air Field reported that Major Jesse Marcel had recovered the remains of a flying saucer discovered by a rancher Bill “Mac” Brazel  in what is now called the Debris Field north of Roswell. A few days later it was announced that it had only been a weather balloon.

At the time of the 60th anniversary in 2007 Ufologist Magazine published my two part article “What Really Crashed at Roswell” which discussed the claims there had been a second crash site with more wreckage and alien bodies. I suggested that the US Air Force explanation, that it was really a Project Mogul balloon, is much more credible. This article can be found here and here. This post follows on from these articles and discusses some of the new developments in the Roswell case in the last ten years.

In their 2007 book Witness to Roswell Thomas Carey and Donald Schmitt now claimed there were three crash sites, the debris field at the Foster Ranch, the Dee Proctor site where Mac Brazel is supposed to have found alien bodies, and they claim to have finally found the third site in 2005 where most of the wreckage and more bodies were found, about fifty miles north of Roswell. This was not the same as the site identified by Frank Kaufmann in The Truth about the UFO Crash at Roswell in 1994 [1]. Everything, which had been previously published about the main crash site, was now apparently wrong.

Timothy ”Dee” Proctor was 7 years old in 1947 and he used to accompany Mac Brazel while he worked. In 1994 Dee took his mother to a location 2 ½ miles east of the Debris Field and told her, “This is where Mac found something else.” He did not elaborate and he was never interviewed by Roswell investigators. He died in 2006[2], but this is supposed to mean that Brazel found alien bodies [3].

As I mentioned here, Frank Joyce also claimed that Brazel said he had seen alien bodies, but Brazel himself as made no such claims.

Earlier books, UFO Crash at Roswell and The Truth about the UFO Crash at Roswell, which Schmitt co-authored, give the impression that the Debris Field was an isolated place and only a few people had seen it. However, in Witness to Roswell Schmitt and Carey several other ranchers had visited the site and picked up debris. Some were even displayed at a rodeo in Capitan about 100 kilometres west of Roswell on July 4[4].

New witnesses, who come forward decades after the event, have little credibility. Schmitt and Carey cite a lot of second-hand accounts from family members who say their relatives saw alien bodies or a crashed spaceship in 1947, but they have died and we cannot verify their stories.

Jesse Marcel never claimed to have seen alien bodies, but Schmitt and Carey ignore Marcel’s own account and write,

“Our investigation has concluded that Major Marcel had to know about the alien bodies that were recovered from the crash – not secondhand by hearing about them from others in the chain of command, but firsthand from seeing them himself.”[5]

Because Dee Proctor’s mother says he told her Mac Brazel “found something else” before he died, Brazel saw alien bodies and he must have shown these bodies to Marcel and Cavitt, even though they never mentioned seeing alien bodies [6].

After Marcel’s death, some of his relatives claimed that Marcel had told them he had seen alien bodies [7]. Jesse Marcel Jr’s 2009 book The Roswell Legacy describes the material which his father brought home from the Foster Ranch and showed them, but he makes it clear his father never saw any alien bodies[8]. Schmitt and Carey suggest there are two possibilities – Marcel told those more distant relatives, but not his son or Marcel did tell his son, but he is not telling the whole story[9]. There is a third possibility, that Marcel never told them and these relatives are making it up.

There is also a problem with Jesse Marcel Jr’s recollections in The Roswell Legacy.  In 1990 he was hypnotized in order to recall the night his father brought the material home[10]. In The Abduction Enigma Kevin Randle argues that memories, which have been “recovered” through hypnosis can be unreliable. He writes,

“It is a poor tool for finding the truth, it allows the subject to confabulate amazing memories and act on those memories as if they were true, and its validity is now being questioned. In fact, in many states, a witness who has been hypnotized in an attempt to learn of an event can no longer be called as a witness. Courts, and science, recognize how easily memories and events can be reconstructed or confabulated by a clever hypnotist. Even those whose memories are a search for the truth can, and do, lead the subject into memories that are not part of reality.”[11]

This means that Jesse Marcel Jr’s recollections of the material he saw could be contaminated and unreliable.

Schmitt and Carey describe the material recovered from the Foster Ranch as “memory metal”. Witnesses said it had unusual properties. It could be crumpled up and then return to its original condition[12]. It sounds like some kind of advanced alien technology. They call this metal the “Holy Grail of Roswell”. Finding some would prove something extraterrestrial had crashed[13].

A 2008 episode of UFO Hunters “The Real Roswell” featured former Staff Sergeant Earl Fulford who described how he had been involved in picking up the debris at the Foster Ranch. He said that after it was crumpled up, it returned to its original shape. In an experiment both Earl Fulford and Jesse Marcel Jr identified the material, which they had handled, as acetate. This undermines both the Project Mogul and the extraterrestrial explanation. There was no acetate in the Project Mogul balloons, but it also shows that what they handled was not necessarily some mysterious metal which was a product of alien technology.

Witness to Roswell published a 2002 affidavit by Walter Haut who died in 2005. Haut had been the Public Information Officer at Roswell Army Air Field and wrote the original press release in July 1947. When he was interviewed for The Roswell Incident in 1979, he said he had not seen any crashed spaceship or alien bodies[14]. In 1989 Kevin Randle and Donald Schmitt interviewed Haut for their book UFO Crash at Roswell. He said he knew, “Nothing.” He had not seen any wreckage or bodies[15].  In his 2002 affidavit Haut told a very different story. He said he had handled some of the debris from the Foster Ranch and had seen part of the spaceship and two alien bodies in a hanger[16].

Haut did not write this affidavit. It was based on statements he made when he was interviewed by two Roswell researchers Wendy Connors and Dennis Balthaser. Kevin Randle commented,

“Anyone listening to the taped interview conducted by Wendy Connors and Dennis Balthaser in 2000 realizes that Haut is lost. He contradicts himself inside of single paragraphs and sometimes single sentences.”[17]

“The Connors/Balthaser interview contained some very disturbing statements by Haut. He was either badly confused, he was deeply conflicted about revealing a secret he had kept for more than sixty years, or he just couldn’t keep his new story straight probably because of his advanced age.  He left a somewhat rambling mishmash of contradictory information in various statements he made after 2000.”[18]

In this interview Haut claimed to have seen several bodies, one body and then claimed not to have seen anything[19].  It sounds like he was getting old and confused and losing his memory. Donald Schmitt and Thomas Carey then wrote the affidavit based on the interview and Haut signed it [20].

Around 2014 a story emerged that two Kodak slides from the 1940s showed an alien body about three feet long in a glass case. In 2015 Tony Bragalia said about the body on the slide,

“This humanoid is not a deformed person, mummy, dummy, simian or dead serviceman. It is not a creature that finds its origin on Earth. And given that the slides of this creature were taken the very same year as the Roswell UFO crash; that the appearance of the creature matches the reported appearance of the Roswell crash aliens; and given that the person who was in original possession of the slides was a geologist working in the New Mexico desert throughout the 1940’s, it is not a jump or stretch to conclude that these slides indeed show the corpse of one of the creatures found fallen at Roswell.” [21] 

However, when the slides became available online and deblurring software made them clearer, the caption on the display case could be read, “Mummified body of a two year old.” [22]  They turned out to be photos of  a mummified Native American boy which had been discovered in 1894 and had been on display in a museum in Mesa Verde National Park, Colorado [23].

In a 2016 book Roswell in the 21st Century Kevin Randle, who had been one of the leading proponents of the Roswell UFO crash, was now more skeptical and critical of the evidence. He agrees that Jesse Marcel appears to have embellished his war record [24] and his memories are “not completely reliable” [25]. He said that Glenn Dennis’ credibility has been destroyed [26] and “we must reject this testimony”[27]. Randle no longer found the witnesses to alien bodies convincing,

“We just have the stories told about the bodies, few of them told by first-hand witnesses. Those who have claimed to be first-hand-witnesses have nothing to prove they were there or that they saw anything extraordinary. They have no diaries, no journals, no letters from that time which would add a note of credibility to what they have claimed.

This is not to mention that many of those who originally claimed t have seen bodies have had their credibility challenged. Some have been caught in forging documents, changing the story to fit the new evidence as it is uncovered and making up their involvement. There are no solid first-hand tales with some form of documentation. All we have is the tales often with no corroborating testimony to go with it, or that all those who might have seen the same thing no longer available for interview.” [28]

When Randle examined the earliest and most reliable evidence, he concluded, “Based solely on this information and documentation, it would appear that the recovery was of a balloon and rawin radar target. The photographs of the debris in Ramey’s office establish that. It is only when testimony, gathered decades after the fact come into play that we move in another direction.” [29]

Randle still did not accept the Project Mogul explanation [30]. Nevertheless, he wrote, “As for me, I find myself drifting toward those who reject the extraterrestrial

.”[31]

Kevin Randle’s change of mind is a major blow for Roswell. He had written several books on Roswell, yet he came to the conclusion that the evidence that the evidence that he had once relied upon and used in his books was unreliable.

Finally, a 2017 episode of History’s Greatest Hoaxes “The Alien Autopsy Film” on Ray Santilli’s video described how it was filmed in a flat in Camden, London. John Humphreys, a special effects artist, says he used chicken and sheep organs for the alien’s insides.

[1] Thomas Carey and Donald Schmitt, Witness to Roswell, New Page Books, New Jersey, 2009, p 138-139

[2] Ibid., p 47, 139, 203-204

[3] Ibid., p 83

[4]  Ibid., p 48-49

[5] Ibid., p 82-83

[6] Ibid., p 83

[7] Ibid., p 84-85

[8] Jesse Marcel Jr and Linda Marcel, The Roswell Legacy, New Page Books, New Jersey, 2005, p 73, 119

[9] Witness to Roswell, op cit., p 73. 119

[10] Thomas Carey and Donald Schmitt, The Children of Roswell, New Page Books, New Jersey, 2016, p 115-120

[11] Kevin Randle, Russ Estes and William Cone, The Abduction Enigma, Forge, New York, 1999, p 338

[12] Witness to Roswell, op cit., p26, 263

[13] Ibid.

[14] The Roswell Incident, op cit., p 76

[15] UFO Crash at Roswell, op cit., p 139-140

[16] Witness to Roswell, op cit., p 251-254

[17] Kevin Randle, Roswell in the 21st Century, Speaking Volumes, Florida, 2016, p  215

[18] Ibid., p 216

[19] Ibid., p 218-219

[20] Ibid., p 215, 218

[21] Ibid., p 177

[22]  Ibid., p 189

[23]  Ibid., p 197-198, 395

[24]  Ibid., p 163

[25]  Ibid., p 164

[26]  Ibid., p 245

[27]  Ibid., p 214

[28]  Ibid., p 104-105

[29]  Ibid., p 236

[30]  Ibid., p 370-371

[31]  Ibid., p 247

Breaking the Spell by Nicholas Kollerstrom Review and Commentary Part Four

In my previous post I looked at some of Nicholas Kollerstrom’s comments about the evidence of Rudolf Hoess, Commandant of Auschwitz. Hoess had originally claimed that 2.5 million Jews had been killed in Auschwitz. In his memoirs written in November 1946, Hoess wrote that 1,230,000 Jews had been killed in Auschwitz (Rudolf Hoess, Commandant of Auschwitz, Phoenix press, London, 2000, p 194).

In May 1945 the Soviet Extraordinary State Commission concluded that four million people had died in Auschwitz. They based this on the capacity of the crematoria. But just because it was theoretically possible to cremate four million bodies does not mean that four million were killed in Auschwitz (Franciszek Piper, “The Number of Victims” in Yisrael Gutman and Michael Berenbaum (editors), Anatomy of the Auschwitz Death Camp, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, 1998, p 65).

In spite of all the revisionist claims that Hoess was coerced into writing his confessions and memoirs, he was clearly not coerced into going along with the “official” Communist estimates of Auschwitz deaths.

Kollerstrom writes,

“Franciszek Piper, Director of the Auschwitz museum in the early 1990s when David Cole got to interview him, shockingly reduced the number who died in the Auschwitz camp from four million to one, or 1.1 million – and he somehow kept his job. The notice up at Auschwitz saying four million had to be changed, but the total remained: Six million minus three million equals six million.” (Nicholas Kollerstrom, Breaking the Spell, Castle Hill Publishers, Uckfield, 2014, p 30)

Piper began his study of the number of victims in Auschwitz in 1980. The first draft of his results was completed in 1986 and it was published in 1991 (Franciszek Piper, “The Number of Victims”, in Yisrael Gutman and Michael Berenbaum (editors), Anatomy of the Auschwitz Death Camp, Indian University Press, Bloomington , 1998, p 68, 74).

His comments were only “shocking” to those who do not follow Holocaust research. Even before 1991, hardly any western historians believed that four million Jews had been killed in Auschwitz. The revisionist Jurgen Graf writes,

“Shortly after the Red Army’s takeover of the Auschwitz camp in January 1945, the Soviets told the world that four million persons had died there. Although this absurd figure was widely cited in the West, and was officially defended in Poland until 1990, few Western historians accepted it.” (Jurgen Graf, “What Happened to the Jews Who Were Deported to Auschwitz But Were Not Registered There?”, Journal of Historical Review, Vol. 19, No. 4, July-August 2000)

Thus, Kollerstrom’s argument that the “official” reduction of the Auschwitz death from four to one million means that the overall death toll in the Holocaust should also be reduced by three million is flawed because Western historians never believed that four million Jews had been killed in Auschwitz.

Their estimates for the total number of Jews killed in the Holocaust  was not worked out by adding up the number of Jews killed in each of the camps, including four million in Auschwitz. Their estimates were based on the number of missing or unaccounted for Jews at the end of the war.

While it is widely believed that six million Jews were killed, some historians have come up with lower estimates. In 1961 Raul Hilberg wrote that one million Jews had died in Auschwitz and 5.1 Million Jews had died in the Holocaust (Raul Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews, Quadrangle Books, Chicago, 1961, p 572, 767). In 1968 Gerald Reitlinger wrote that 700,000 Jews had been  killed in Auschwitz and between 4,2 and 4.57 Jews had been killed in the Holocaust (Gerald Reitlinger, The Final Solution, Valentine, Mitchell, London, 1968, p 501, 546).

Kollerstrom and other revisionists point to the Jews  who survived the war, as though this somehow proves there was no mass murder program (Breaking the Spell, p 210, 212). He writes,

“Supporters of the Holocaust legend cannot have it both ways. If they are taking endless “reparations” from Germany claiming to be “Holocaust survivors”. then how can they allege that such numbers of Jews were liquidated in Europe?” (Breaking the Spell, p 46)

“One can either have an ongoing program of extermination or have workers capable of doing skilled work – but not both.” (Breaking the Spell, p 102)

They did have both. This argument reveals their ignorance of the nature of the Holocaust. The Holocaust was not a pogrom in which the Nazis killed every Jew they could find. No historian has ever said this was the case. In general, the unfit Jews were killed, while the fit Jews, who could be used for slave labour, were kept alive for a while. Some of these survived the war. This policy is outlined in a well-known  March 27, 1942 passage from Joseph Goebbels’ diary,

“Beginning with Lublin, the Jews are now being deported eastward from the Government-General. The procedure is pretty barbaric, and one that beggars description, and there’s not much left of the Jews. Broadly speaking, one can probably say that sixty percent of them will have to be liquidated while only forty percent can be put to work.” (David Irving, Goebbels, Mastermind of the Third Reich, Focal Point, London 1996, p 388)

The Wannsee Protocol is the minutes of a January 1942 conference on the implementation of the Final Solution. Part of it explains what will happen to the Jews who were deported,

“In pursuance of the final solution, the Jews will be conscripted for labour in the east under appropriate supervision. Large labour gangs will be formed form those fit for work, with the sexes separated, which will be sent to these areas for road construction and undoubtedly a large number of them will drop out through natural wastage. The remainder who survive – and they will certainly be those who have the greatest powers of endurance – will have to be dealt with accordingly. For, if released, they would, as a natural selection of the fittest, form a germ cell from which the Jewish race could regenerate itself.” (J. Noakes and G. Pridham (editors), Nazism 1919-1945, A History in Documents and Eyewitness Accounts, Volume 2, Schocken Nooks, New York, 1988, p 1131)

Like Goebbels’ diary, the Wannsee Protocol says that the fit Jews would be used for slave labour, but it does not say what would happen to the unfit Jews. If it was nothing sinister, why didn’t they just say so? It looks like they did not want to put into writing that the unfit Jews would be Jews.

Furthermore, there is no evidence that Jews were actually used to build roads in the East.

Kollerstrom quotes from both Goebbels’ diary and the Wannsee Protocol, arguing that the Final Solution only meant deporting the Jews to the East (Breaking the Spell, p 214). That part is true. The issue is what happened to the Jews when they got there. He quotes several passages from Goebbels’ diary about the deportation of the Jews and concludes, “Let’s hope this settle the matter.” (Breaking the Spell, p 216)

However, he ignores the two passages quoted above. How can someone ignore the most famous passage in Goebbels’ diary on the fate of the Jews when discussing the fate of the Jews?

Kollerstrom argues that there could not have been any mass murder program because there were 5 million Jews still alive at the end of the war (Breaking the Spell, p 46, 48). If there were about 11 million Jews n Europe at the start of the war and 5 million Jews at the end, this does not prove that around 6 million Jews were not killed.

However, Kollerstrom claims there were only 3 million Jews in Nazi-occupied Europe (Breaking the Spell, p 46, 50). He even says there were only 1.1 million Jews in Poland (Breaking the Spell, p 46).

Seriously?

I think the Nazis would have known how many Jews they had. The Wannsee Protocol said there were 11 million Jews in Europe, including 2.7 million in Poland (Nazism, 1919-1945, Volume 2, p 1130). In a diary entry for March 7, 1942, Joseph Goebbels wrote, “There are 11 million Jews still in Europe.”

Before the Wannsee Conference Hans Frank, Governor of the General Government (part of Nazi-occupied Poland), said in a speech on December 16, 1941,

“We have an estimated 2.5 million Jews in the General Government; if one includes those married to them and all their dependents, perhaps 3.5 million. We cannot shoot these 3.5 million Jews, we cannot poison them, but we must be able to intervene in away which somehow achieves a successful extermination.” (Nazism, 1919-1945, Volume 2, p 1126-1127)

This does not sound like a resettlement policy.

In The Holocaust and the Soviet Union Yitzhak Arad estimates there were between 2.6 and 2.7 million Jews in the Nazi-occupied areas of the Soviet Union, including the Baltic States and eastern Poland, and 2.5 to 2.6 million were killed (Yitzhak Arad, The Holocaust and the Soviet Union, University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, 2009, p 525).

Kollerstrom deals with the issue of the Jews killed in the soviet Union by ignoring them,

“We are not concerned with Jews in Russia, namely because the German pay-outs for “Holocaust survivors” excluded these until the collapse of the Soviet Union.” (Breaking the Spell, p 46)

What is that supposed to mean? Because the post-war West German government did not pay reparations to the surviving Russian Jews, the Jews, which came under Nazi rule, do not count?

To be continued.